Between Victory and Defeat

Between Victory and Defeat Author Nathan Todd Arrington
ISBN-10 OCLC:810065002
Year 2010
Pages 634
Language en
Publisher
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This dissertation examines the visual reception of military casualties in fifth-century Athens: the place of the war dead in the city's physical, artistic, and cognitive landscapes; the construction of a public visual rhetoric of struggle and sacrifice; and the refraction of this ideal in private art. To put it simply: Where were the fallen, how were they presented, and how were they viewed? To answer these questions, I examine the public cemetery ("demosion sema"), the monuments therein, the images of death and defeat on the Akropolis, and the relationship of this imagery to that found on private symposium vessels. I use the concept of "framing" to analyze and explicate the material culture surrounding the war dead in ancient Athens. By "frames" I refer to the physical settings of both objects (including ashes or bodies) and of images related to the fallen, together with other aspects of material culture that inhabit those settings and surround the objects and images under study. At the same time, I am interested in how these physical frames create referential frames: the mental structures that we use to understand the activity around us. Physical frame, referential frame, form, and content work together to produce meaning. In different places at different times, the fallen warrior could be viewed as belonging to a victory, to a defeat, or to the conceptual space between the two: the moments of intense struggle and effort when individuals strove to secure victory and avoid defeat. Following an introductory chapter, the second chapter presents the first comprehensive archaeological study of the "demosion sema," the public cemetery. Compiling and analyzing the findings from over three hundred urban rescue excavations, I demonstrate that the cemetery was established ca. 500 BC along the so-called Academy Road, and spread a short distance eastward. I trace the use of this space through time and show that the cemetery was not a delimited, organized, or controlled area. The war dead were removed from the center of the city into a setting with few visitors and interspersed among private graves, shrines, and workshops. By integrating the war dead into the landscape, the polis mitigated their potentially disruptive presence. I juxtapose the spatial arrangement at Athens with the layout of the Yasukuni shrine for Japanese war dead and suggest a model for understanding the organization of the "demosion sema." The third chapter addresses the artwork within the "demosion sema." The cemetery was not a place of lavish display in the early fifth century, and often the state burials dissociated themselves from the aristocratic monuments of the past. Moreover, they did not provide models for late fifth-century private funerary sculpture. The casualty lists, the defining visual aspect of the state burials, were potential monuments to defeat. The format and appearance of the lists, together with their epigrams and crowning figural reliefs, show how the Athenians mourned their losses while simultaneously creating defiant monuments of power and collective resilience. They historicized more than heroized the war dead, locating them in an extended narrative that blurred distinctions between victory and defeat. The casualty lists, particularly their friezes, did not passively honor the dead but created a viewer-oriented rhetoric focused on "agon." The fourth chapter turns to intra-mural sacred space. The Akropolis was not a stage for victory dedications alone but a place in which the Athenians repeatedly confronted the fallen warrior. Victory monuments and references to the fallen shared a concern to articulate, explain, and strengthen the relationship between mortals and immortals. Elaborating on C. Marconi's work on "kosmos" and T. Hölscher's study of "decor," and drawing on A. Gell's analysis of agency in art, I show that the representations of the fallen belonged to an imagery that actively invoked the gods through pleasing and appropriate depictions and that simultaneously confronted viewers and compelled them to contemplate the dead. They internalized death and the civic ideology of sacrifice for the city. Chapter five discusses the framing of the fallen on symposium vessels through a close study of the mythical Kaineus. This defeated Lapith could be framed to display heroic resistance, a victory in the face of death. However, a complete study of the images that accompany Kaineus on black-figure and red-figure pottery shows that in the fifth century artists sometimes framed Kaineus' defeat with scenes designed to elicit connotations to his earlier female gender. In the setting of the symposium, pervaded by sporting and play, the defeated Greek was not sacred. No sooner were martial ideals presented than they were subverted. The potential for Kaineus to be comic, either because of his posture or because of the surprise elicited through the framing devices, facilitated the viewer's gaze on death and defeat. This dissertation reaches the following five conclusions: 1) at Athens the war dead often were forgotten; 2) public intra-mural spaces could be used to portray the leadership and sacrifice of prominent individuals; 3) expanding the referential frame minimized the impact of defeat; 4) death on public monuments was not presented in the guise of victory, but embedded in a narrative of "agon"; and 5) images of the fallen on the Akropolis and in the symposium worked upon the viewer to internalize and accept death.

Failing to Win

Failing to Win Author Dominic D. P Johnson
ISBN-10 9780674039179
Year 2009-06-30
Pages 357
Language en
Publisher Harvard University Press
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How do people decide which country came out ahead in a war or a crisis? In Failing to Win, Dominic Johnson and Dominic Tierney dissect the psychological factors that predispose leaders, media, and the public to perceive outcomes as victories or defeats--often creating wide gaps between perceptions and reality.

LIFE

LIFE Author
ISBN-10
Year 1957-03-18
Pages 164
Language en
Publisher
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LIFE Magazine is the treasured photographic magazine that chronicled the 20th Century. It now lives on at LIFE.com, the largest, most amazing collection of professional photography on the internet. Users can browse, search and view photos of today’s people and events. They have free access to share, print and post images for personal use.

Tokyo Seven Roses

Tokyo Seven Roses Author Hisashi Inoue
ISBN-10 9780857280435
Year 2013-05-15
Pages 329
Language en
Publisher Thames River Press
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Tokyo Seven Roses' is set in Japan during the waning months of WWII and the beginning of the Occupation. It is written as a diary kept from April 1945 to April 1946 by Shinsuke Yamanaka, a fifty-three-year-old fan-maker living in Nezu, part of Tokyo's shitamachi (old-town) district. After the war, Shinsuke learns by chance that the Occupation forces are plotting a nefarious scheme: in order to cut Japan off from its dreadful past, they intend to see that the language is written henceforth using the alphabet. To fight off this unheard-of threat to the integrity of Japanese culture, seven beautiful women – the Seven Roses – take a stand.

The Guns of August 2008

The Guns of August 2008 Author Svante E. Cornell
ISBN-10 9780765629425
Year 2009-06-08
Pages
Language en
Publisher M.E. Sharpe
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In the summer of 2008, a conflict that appeared to have begun in the breakaway Georgian territory of South Ossetia rapidly escalated to become the most significant crisis in European security in a decade. The implications of the Russian-Georgian war will be understood differently depending on one's narrative of what transpired and perspective on the broader context. This book is designed to present the facts about the events of August 2008 along with comprehensive coverage of the background to those events. It brings together a wealth of expertise on the South Caucasus and Russian foreign policy, with contributions by Russian, Georgian, European, and American experts on the region.

Communism and the Emergence of Democracy

Communism and the Emergence of Democracy Author Harald Wydra
ISBN-10 9781139462181
Year 2007-02-08
Pages
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Before democracy becomes an institutionalised form of political authority, the rupture with authoritarian forms of power causes deep uncertainty about power and outcomes. This 2007 book connects the study of democratisation in eastern Europe and Russia to the emergence and crisis of communism. Wydra argues that the communist past is not simply a legacy but needs to be seen as a social organism in gestation, where critical events produce new expectations, memories and symbols that influence meanings of democracy. By examining a series of pivotal historical events, he shows that democratisation is not just a matter of institutional design, but rather a matter of consciousness and leadership under conditions of extreme and traumatic incivility. Rather than adopting the opposition between non-democratic and democratic, Wydra argues that the communist experience must be central to the study of the emergence and nature of democracy in (post-) communist countries.

Military Power

Military Power Author Stephen Biddle
ISBN-10 9781400837823
Year 2010-12-16
Pages 352
Language en
Publisher Princeton University Press
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In war, do mass and materiel matter most? Will states with the largest, best equipped, information-technology-rich militaries invariably win? The prevailing answer today among both scholars and policymakers is yes. But this is to overlook force employment, or the doctrine and tactics by which materiel is actually used. In a landmark reconception of battle and war, this book provides a systematic account of how force employment interacts with materiel to produce real combat outcomes. Stephen Biddle argues that force employment is central to modern war, becoming increasingly important since 1900 as the key to surviving ever more lethal weaponry. Technological change produces opposite effects depending on how forces are employed; to focus only on materiel is thus to risk major error--with serious consequences for both policy and scholarship. In clear, fluent prose, Biddle provides a systematic account of force employment's role and shows how this account holds up under rigorous, multimethod testing. The results challenge a wide variety of standard views, from current expectations for a revolution in military affairs to mainstream scholarship in international relations and orthodox interpretations of modern military history. Military Power will have a resounding impact on both scholarship in the field and on policy debates over the future of warfare, the size of the military, and the makeup of the defense budget.

International Relations Theory

International Relations Theory Author Andrew H. Kydd
ISBN-10 9781107027350
Year 2015-01-29
Pages 239
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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A new introduction to the game theoretic approach to international relations theory. Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this textbook provides the support and background needed for students to gain a thorough understanding of the rationalist approach, from the basic foundations to more complex models.

The War on Terror Narrative

The  War on Terror  Narrative Author Adam Hodges
ISBN-10 9780199759590
Year 2011-04-15
Pages 180
Language en
Publisher OUP USA
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The War on Terror Narrative provides a longitudinal and holistic study of the formation, circulation, and contestation of the Bush administration's narrative about the "war on terror."

Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity

Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity Author Roy A. Rappaport
ISBN-10 0521296900
Year 1999-03-25
Pages 535
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Roy Rappaport argues that religion is central to the continuing evolution of life, although it has been been displaced from its original position of intellectual authority by the rise of modern science. His book, which could be construed as in some degree religious as well as about religion, insists that religion can and must be reconciled with science. Combining adaptive and cognitive approaches to the study of humankind, he mounts a comprehensive analysis of religion's evolutionary significance, seeing it as co-extensive with the invention of language and hence of culture as we know it. At the same time he assembles the fullest study yet of religion's main component, ritual, which constructs the conceptions which we take to be religious and has been central in the making of humanity's adaptation. The text amounts to a manual for effective ritual, illustrated by examples drawn from anthropology, history, philosophy, comparative religion, and elsewhere.

No Victory No Peace

No Victory  No Peace Author Angelo Codevilla
ISBN-10 0742550036
Year 2005-01-01
Pages 191
Language en
Publisher Rowman & Littlefield
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The Bush Administration has not achieved peace because it has not sought victory. Bringing terrorists to 'justice' has no more logical connection with defeating the causes for which they fight than does keeping certain weapons out of the hands of certain states, or even making sure that free elections with female suffrage become universal. No Victory, No Peace applies the classical concepts of warfare to America's current struggles, and shows the (hard) way to win peace. Published in cooperation with Claremont Institute.

Triumph in Defeat

Triumph in Defeat Author Jessica Homan Clark
ISBN-10 9780199336548
Year 2014
Pages 240
Language en
Publisher Oxford University Press, USA
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Although a great deal of historical work has been done in the past decade on Roman triumphs, defeats and their place in Roman culture have been relatively neglected. Why should we investigate the defeats of a society that almost never lost a war? In Triumph in Defeat, Jessica H. Clark answers this question by showing what responses to defeat can tell us about the Roman definition of victory. First opening with a general discussion of defeat and commemoration at Rome and then following the Second Punic War from its commencement to its afterlife in Roman historical memory through the second century BCE, culminating in the career of Gaius Marius, Clark examines both the successful production of victory narratives within the Senate and the gradual breakdown of those narratives. The result sheds light on the wars of the Republic, the Romans who wrote about these wars, and the ways in which both the events and their telling informed the political landscape of the Roman state. Triumph in Defeat not only fills a major gap in the study of Roman military, political, and cultural life, but also contributes to a more nuanced picture of Roman society, one that acknowledges the extent to which political discourse shaped Rome's status as a world power. Clark's work shows how defeat shaped the society whose massive reputation was-and still often is-built on its successes.

Roman Defeat Christian Response and the Literary Construction of the Jew

Roman Defeat  Christian Response  and the Literary Construction of the Jew Author David M. Olster
ISBN-10 9781512809558
Year 2015-09-28
Pages 224
Language en
Publisher University of Pennsylvania Press
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Olster explores Byzantine Christian reactions to the catastrophic Persian and Arab invasions, challenging long-held assumptions that divided "religious" from "secular" literature and exempted religion from contemporary social, political, and intellectual discourse.

Armies South Armies North

Armies South  Armies North Author Alan Axelrod
ISBN-10 9781493024070
Year 2017-05-01
Pages 320
Language en
Publisher Rowman & Littlefield
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An argument settler--and starter--for Civil War buffs who want to know which side had the better soldiers: Armies South, Armies North definitively compares the military forces of both sides. Civil War buffs are always arguing over which side had the better soldiers. Armies South/Armies North by Alan Axelrod helps readers reconsider their understanding of America’s most harrowing war. Axelrod is the author of more than one hundred books with a passion for military history and leadership. Each chapter of his new book compares the military forces with both quantitative and qualitative measures. Axelrod analyzes the equipment, the leadership and strategies, and the men who fought in each army, with additional focus on lesser known flash points during the war.